《草莓的真相》

2017-01-15 19:41:41
/  美食


kelly hu 感言:草莓因为体积小而常常被我忽略它的食用安全性,如果我今天看不到这篇文章,可能我永远不会知道它的真相。


  • 1、食品安全问题远不是一两句话能讲清楚的。它牵扯到种植环境,土壤、水质、种植方法及商贩许多环节。

  • 2、关于饮食安全需要人们当作权利来捍卫。

  • 3、食品安全问题没有人监管需要人们更加有意识的选购商品。

                        


杀虫剂 有毒气体=低劣的一年四季的草莓


作者:Bill Walker 学术研究编辑和 

Sonya Lunder高级分析师化验员


(输入以上内容可以通过linkedin可以找到他们  

  不做个人主观描述,仍然选用中英对译的方式呈现




      美国人每年要吃将近8磅的草莓(相当于140个鸡蛋)-在食用这些草莓的同时,他们也随之摄入了几十种杀虫剂,包括一些在欧洲被禁的化学物质,这些化学物质与癌症和生殖系统损伤有关。根据美国环境工作组一项最新分析www.ewg.org EWG让人们在更健康的环境中过上更健康的生活的非营利性组织)2009年和2014美国农业部的科学家检测的草莓中,每个样品平均含有5.75种不同的农药,而所有其他产品的检测样品则为1.74种农药。(小小草莓为什么要用这么多杀虫剂呢?)


Americans eat nearly eight pounds of fresh strawberries a year – and with them, dozens of pesticides, including chemicals that have been linked to cancer and reproductive damage or are banned in Europe.

Strawberries tested by scientists at the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 2009 and 2014 bore an average of 5.75 different pesticides per sample, compared to 1.74 pesticides per sample for all other produce, according to a new EWG analysis.



 

      更糟糕的是,草莓种植者在种植前使用大量的有毒气体对其土壤进行杀菌处理,以此来消灭土壤中的害虫,杂草和其他生物。而这种气体是战争期间为进行化学战而研发的,如今已经被日内瓦公约明令禁止。出于这些原因,2016编辑的EWG农药商品购物者指南》中第一次将草莓列为 Dirty Dozen™ 名单(美国“十二大肮脏果蔬”黑名单)之首。美国农业部的检测发现草莓是最易被农药残留污染的新鲜农产品,即使它们经过挑选、现场冲洗并且在食用前清洗。如果你想避免摄入农药和种植在注入有毒气体土壤中的草莓,美国环境工作组建议您购买有机种植的果子。我们对其它Dirty Dozen™名单上的食品也作出同样的建议。

     

What’s worse, strawberry growers use jaw-dropping volumes of poisonous gases – some developed for chemical warfare but now banned by the Geneva Conventions – to sterilize their fields before planting, killing every pest, weed and other living thing in the soil.For these reasons, the 2016 edition of EWG’s Shopper’s Guide to Pesticides in Produce™ for the first time elevates strawberries at the top of the Dirty Dozen™ list. USDA tests found that strawberries are the fresh produce items most likely to be contaminated with pesticide residues,  even after they are picked, rinsed in the field and washed before eating.If you want to avoid pesticides and don't want strawberries grown in soil injected with nerve gases, EWG advises that you always buy organically grown berries. We make the same recommendation for other Dirty Dozen™ foods. 



(难道是因为草莓很幼小所以容易被虫害才需要这么多农药?)




       关于草莓和杀虫剂的有关事实均来自于美国农业部农药数据中心。(网址是:www.ams.usda.gov  可自行搜索查看)2014美国农业部检测了将近176批次的草莓,其中85%种植于美国,其余来自于墨西哥。我们将2014年的检测结果添加到2009年的703项检测批次中发现:草莓取代苹果在Dirty Dozen™榜首的位置,成为美国销售产品中农药残留污染之最。


The facts about strawberries and pesticides come from USDAs Pesticide Data Program.  In 2014, USDA scientists tested 176 batches of strawberries – about 85 percent grown in the U.S., with the rest from Mexico. When we added the 2014 test data to results from tests of 703 batches in 2009, strawberries displaced apples at the top of the Dirty Dozen™ list of U.S.-marketed produce most likely to be contaminated with pesticide residues.




美国农业部2014年度的草莓检测发现:

  • 1、几乎所有的样本(98%的样本)含有至少一种的农药残留。

  • 2、约40%样品含有10种及以上的农药残留。

  • 3、最脏的草莓样本含有17种农药残留。

  • 4、草莓种植者以多种组合方式使用了60种不同的农药。


The USDAs 2014 strawberry tests found that:

  • Almost all samples – 98 percent – had detectable residues of at least one pesticide.

  • Some 40 percent had residues of 10 or more pesticides.

  • The dirtiest strawberry sample had residues of 17 different pesticides.

  • Strawberry growers used 60 different pesticides in various combinations.


     

     在草莓上使用化学药品有多大的危害?有些是良性的。但是有一些是和癌症、生殖、发育方面的损伤,激素干扰和神经系统问题相关。其中,危害最大的是以下几种:

  • 1、多菌灵。一种破坏雄性生殖系统的激素类杀菌剂,在2014年的样品检测中占30%。因其强烈的毒性而被欧盟禁止。

  • 2、联苯菊酯。加利福尼亚监管机构认定的可能会致癌的杀虫剂,在2014年的检测中有逾40%的样品含有此物。

  • 3、马拉硫磷。2009年的检测中逾20%的样品中含有马拉硫磷,而2014年中有10%的含有该物。它对神经系统有毒。国际癌症研究机构称,马拉硫磷是一种可能致癌的物质。 它经常用作根除蚊子和其他昆虫。此外,在2009年的检测中,有10%以上的样品含有马拉氧磷——马拉硫磷分解后产生的特殊毒剂。


How hazardous are the chemicals used on strawberries?  Some are fairly benign. But some are linked to cancer, reproductive and developmental damage, hormone disruption and neurological problems. 

Among the worst:

  • Carbendazim, a hormone-disrupting fungicide that damages the male reproductive system, was detected on 30 percent of 2014 samples. The European Union has banned it because of its intense toxicity.

  • Bifenthrin, found on more than 40 percent of samples in 2014, is an insecticide that California regulators have designated a possible human carcinogen.

  • Malathion, found on more than 20 percent of samples in 2009 and 10 percent in 2014, is toxic to the nervous system and, according to the International Agency for Cancer Research, a probable human carcinogen. It is often sprayed to eradicate mosquitos and other insects. In addition, malaoxon, a particularly toxic chemical formed when malathion breaks down, showed up on more than 10 percent of the 2009 samples.



虽然这些结果令人不安,但这些食品却没有违反美国相关的食品农药法律法规。

As disturbing as these results are, they do not violate weak U.S. laws and regulations on  pesticides on food.


草莓被人们用以做各种食物via



       2014年,仅有7%的草莓检测样品中农药残留量达到了非法线。5个草莓样品农药残留超过了“可忍受水平线”,即美国环境保护局规定的法律允许水平。9个样本中含有不能用于草莓上的非法农药。(所以种草莓种植户是不是都不吃他们自己种的草莓?)


Only about seven percent of the strawberries sampled in 2014 had levels of pesticide residues considered illegal. Five samples had pesticide levels that exceeded the "tolerance level," the legally permissible level set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.  Nine samples contained pesticides illegal for use on strawberries.

  



       美国环保署的容忍水平线过于宽松,不能保护公众健康。这些容忍水平线是帮助相关机构人员确定农民是否正确施用农药的准绳。然而,它们是在几年前设定的,因此并没有考虑到一些新的研究成果:一些化学物质在非常小的剂量下对人体是有害,特别是特别是当人们接触到这些化学制品组合时。

如果农药限定等级设置到儿童健康级别,毕竟他们比成年人更易受到小剂量化学物质的毒害,那么将有很多的蔬菜和水果会不达标。现行的美国环保署农药宽容度就像是500英里每小时的汽车限速一样,在这种情况下不可能有人违反规则也没有人会感觉到安全。


The EPA’s tolerance levels are too lenient to protect public health. They are a yardstick to help the agency’s personnel determine whether farmers are applying pesticides properly. They were set years ago and they do not account for newer research showing that toxic chemicals can be harmful at very small doses, particularly when people are exposed to combinations of chemicals.

If pesticide tolerance levels were set to protect the health of children, who are more vulnerable than adults to small doses, more fruits and vegetables would fail. The current EPA pesticide tolerances are like having a 500 mph speed limit – if the rules of the road are so loose its impossible to violate them, no one can feel safe.





       新鲜的草莓曾经是一种时令水果,仅在春季和夏季的几个月份里有少量的供给。而近十年间,通过增加农药使用和其它的化学辅助方式,草莓可以廉价的全年供应。另外,积极的营销活动也刺激了草莓的消费,今天,美国平均每人在一年内要吃掉将近8磅的草莓,这是1980年的4倍。

在美国销售出的草莓中,有超过3/4的草莓种植在加利福尼亚州,该州在农药使用追踪中最为谨慎。加利福尼亚的数据显示,2014年每英亩草莓使用了近300磅的农药,与每英亩玉米大约5磅的农药相比,这个剂量非常庞大,可以算作一种农药密集型作物。



Fresh strawberries once were a seasonal treat, available in limited supply only for a few spring and summer months. In recent decades the increased use of pesticides and other chemically-aided growing methods have made cheap strawberries available year round, and aggressive marketing campaigns have spurred consumption. Today the average American eats almost eight pounds of fresh strawberries a year – nearly four times as much as in 1980.

More than three-fourths of the fresh strawberries sold in the U.S. are grown in California, the state that most carefully tracks pesticide use. California data show that in 2014, nearly 300 pounds of pesticides were applied to each acre of strawberries – an astonishing amount, compared to about five pounds of pesticides per acre of corn, which is considered a pesticide-intensive crop. 






       但是加利福尼亚的草莓中使用的农药,只有20%是可能在收获的果实中留下残留物的,而另外80%(约为970万镑)的农药是熏蒸剂,它是一种直接注入土壤中在种植前对土壤消毒的有毒气体。

熏蒸剂是一种急性毒性气体,它可以杀死土壤中的任何生物。 有些最初是作为战争中的化学毒剂开发出来的,现已被日内瓦公约禁止。 种植者注射熏蒸剂后,他们用塑料篷布覆盖田地,以保持气体在土壤下面远离人和动物。但是熏蒸剂仍然可以在施用期间或者通过撕裂的破口中泄漏出去,致使致命烟雾飘散,危害农场工人和附近居民。


But only about 20 percent of the chemicals used on California strawberries were pesticides that can leave residues on harvested fruit. The other 80 percent -- more than 9.7 million pounds in 2014 – were fumigants, which are poisonous gases injected directly into the ground to sterilize the soil before planting.

Fumigants are acutely toxic gases that kill every living thing in the soil. Some were originally developed as chemical warfare agents, now banned by the Geneva Conventions. After growers inject fumigants, they cover the fields with plastic tarp in an effort to keep the gas underground and away from people and animals But fumigants can leak during application and from torn tarps, sending the deadly fumes adrift and endangering farm workers and people who live nearby.




       最臭名昭著的熏蒸剂是溴甲烷。一种在1987年就被国际条约禁止的化学药剂。因为它破坏了保护地球的臭氧层。但近40年来,美国草莓种植者们向美国环保署争取并赢得了所谓的“决定性豁免权”,虽然最终还是在今年被废止了。二十年前,美国环境工作组和其它组织在加利福尼亚州中部海岸地区开展了反对溴甲烷的活动,该地区也是大量农作物的种植地。该地区城市的开发和发展让数十万居人居住在与草莓田近在咫尺的地方。这项运动迫使加利福尼亚州在草莓田附近的学校和社区周围建立缓冲性保护区域,并限制在学校上课时间内使用溴化甲烷。此项规定减少了加州人与溴甲烷的接触,但是仍然无法消除这类危险化学品。


The most notorious strawberry fumigant is methyl bromide. An international treaty banned it in 1987 because it destroys the earth's protective ozone layer, but for almost 40 years U.S. strawberry growers have fought for and won so-called critical use exemptions" from the EPA, which will finally end this year.

Two decades ago, EWG and other groups campaigned against methyl bromide in California's Central Coast region, where most of the U.S. crop is grown. Urban development in the region has brought hundreds of thousands of residents into close proximity with strawberry fields. The campaign forced the state to establish protective buffer zones near schools and neighborhoods and to restrict methyl bromide injection during school hours. These rules reduced Californians exposure to methyl bromide but fell far short of eliminating this dangerous chemical.


  


       在美国环保署的逐步淘汰下,在草莓上溴甲烷的使用量持续下降。今天,种植者们在草莓上的溴甲烷使用量已经非常少了。但是,取代它的新的土壤熏蒸剂同样是有害的。它们包括:chloropicrin(二氯硝基甲),催泪瓦斯中的活性成分,和 1,3-dichloropropene1,3-二氯丙烯)美国 DOW化工公司 (美国一家跨国化工公司 世界第二大化学品制造商)出售的可能致癌物。这两者都是欧盟禁止使用的农药。2014年美国调查报告中心报道了DOW化工公司是如何成功游说加利福尼亚的草莓种植者加倍使用他们的二氯丙烯。调查报告中心报道,超过一百万的加利福尼亚人经常暴露在比此前认定的安全浓度更高的二氯丙烯中。同年,该州的一项研究发现在加利福尼亚草莓种植带中心的一个快速发展的城市沃森维尔,空气中二氯丙烯浓度超过国家安全标准的40%。 


Under the EPA phase-out, methyl bromide use on strawberries has steadily declined. Today, growers are using less methyl bromide on their strawberry fields. But the newer soil fumigants that are replacing it are also hazardous. These include chloropicrin, the active ingredient in tear gas, and 1,3-dichloropropene, a carcinogen sold by Dow Chemical Company as Telone. Both are banned in the European Union.

In 2014 the Center for Investigative Reporting revealed how Dow lobbied for and won a loophole to allow California strawberry growers to double their annual use of Telone. As a result, the Center reported, more than one million Californians were regularly exposed to higher concentrations of Telone than were previously considered safe. The same year, a state study found that chloropicrin in the air in Watsonville, a rapidly growing city in the heart of the California strawberry belt, exceeded the state's safety standard by 40 percent.



     熏蒸剂的有机替代品结合了传统的作物轮作工具,用类似于堆制肥料的新技术来控制害虫和病原体的积累。 种植者将富含碳的材料如米糠和废蜜(糖浆废料)用水混合搅拌至表层土中,并用塑料防水布覆盖。 在篷布下,有机浆体释放能毒害病原体的天然副产物



The organic alternative to fumigation combines the traditional tool of crop rotation, meant to control the buildup of pests and pathogens, with a new technology thats akin to composting. Growers mix a carbon-rich material such as rice bran or molasses into topsoil, which is then saturated with water and covered with a plastic tarp. Under the tarp, the organic slurry gives off natural byproducts that are toxic to pathogens.


   


      这种方法和农药熏蒸法一样有效(有利于人的健康的新方式真的是各方压力使然 人总是一步一步踩着自己的愚蠢走来)种植者们称使用这种方法后农作物产量几乎没有损失。但是这种方法价格更昂贵,因此也增加了有机草莓的种植成本,在商店里每磅的售价超过4美元,而传统品种每磅约为2.5美元。有机草莓占全国市场还不到10%,但是它的份额正在逐年迅速增长。随着越来越多的种植者抛弃化学杀虫剂和化学熏蒸剂,有机草莓价格有望下降。 对于我们来说,谁都不想吃到农药杀虫剂的残留物,每个人都想停止化学熏蒸剂对工人和邻居们健康的危害。我们买有机草莓只需要多付一点点钱。草莓从偶尔享用的商品转变为便宜而丰富的超市大众消费品,这个事实应该作为一个警示性故事,时刻提醒人们化工驱动型农业化生产所产生的后果。(在超市选购昂贵水果的时候请区分是运输成本高还是种植方式成本高)



This method is working as well as fumigation, with growers who use it reporting almost no loss in crop yield. It’s more expensive, driving up the cost of organic strawberries – more than $4 a pound in the store, compared to about $2.50 a pound for the conventional variety. Organic strawberries represent less than 10 percent of the market nationwide, but their share is growing rapidly. As more growers turn away from pesticides and fumigants, the price of organics is expected to drop.

For those of us who dont want to eat pesticide residues and who want to stop fumigants from endangering workers and neighbors, buying organic is a small price to pay. The transformation of strawberries from an occasional treat to a cheap and abundant supermarket staple should serve as cautionary tale about the consequences of chemically-driven industrial agriculture.


   

kelly hu : 其实,我最担心的还是喜欢吃草莓的儿童们。


(译文中有许多专有名词如有专业人士发现不恰当之处请多指教 感谢Amy校准)



enjoy~


night



 

            










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